Monthly Archives: July 2022

Financial And Mobility Planning For “US Persons” With US/Australia Dual @TaxResidency

US citizenship taxation has made US citizens the most heavily regulated individuals in the world and subject to the most penalty laden and complex set of regulations the world has ever known. Those who wish to retain US citizenship or US Green Cards will have to learn how to navigate it.

An industry is slowly growing based on the need for US citizens to have complex and specialized advice. Meet Ashley Murphy:

Tri-citizen of the US, Australia and the UK & Principal of Areté Wealth Strategists Australia, a financial planning firm based in the US.

Better yet… here is a link to his video channel which includes a number of sessions focussing on those who are or who are planning to become US/Australia dual tax residents.

https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCUDWXYRE7IyEb7p3zdToZig

John Richardson – Follow me on Twitter @Expatriationlaw

Be Careful Of Faulty Logic Claiming FATCA And The CRS Are Similar: Seven Ways They Are Not

Prologue

For those more interested in logic than in FATCA, you will find a discussion of the logical fallacy here.

Introduction

Last week I participated in a group discussion about FATCA and its effect on Accidental Americans. It’s difficult to have a discussion about FATCA that doesn’t include the CRS (“Common Reporting Standard”). Neither FATCA nor the CRS is well understood. That said, an introduction of the CRS into a discussion about FATCA detracts from a consideration of how FATCA impacts Accidental Americans (and others). Furthermore, there is a generalized assumption that the CRS is a positive development. Associating FATCA with the CRS enhances the “illusion” that FATCA is also a positive development.

In part, the discussion assumed that:

– FATCA (U.S. “Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act”) and the OECD CRS (“Common Reporting Standard“) were similar kinds of information exchange agreements; and

– To attack/criticize FATCA would be to criticize and have the effect of weakening the CRS.

These are absurd claims which are based on faulty logic. The faulty logic is that because FATCA and the CRS overlap in one aspect that they are functionally equivalent in intent, effect, purpose and other aspects. The argument appears to be based on the following reasoning:

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The FATCA IGAs Do Not Impose An Obligation Of Reciprocity On The United States

Introduction – The Question

Over the past few months, in unrelated contexts, I have heard the question asked:

Is FATCA reciprocal?

For example the Judges hearing the appeal in the ADCS FATCA Canada lawsuit asked (clearly assuming that it did) whether the FATCA IGAs imposed reciprocal obligations on the United States. Surely it must, they assumed. Recently the head of a FATCA fact finding mission asked in a meeting of individuals the same question. In neither case was a clear “yes or no” answer provided. Some participants were adamant that there WAS reciprocity. Others were adamant that there was no reciprocity. Some simply didn’t know. This post is an attempt to analyze the facts as they pertain to FATCA, consider whether the FATCA IGAs prescribe reciprocity of obligation and ultimately explain why there is NO meaningful reciprocity of obligation.

Some Important FATCAoids

The 2010 Statute

FATCA was signed into law by President Obama on March 18, 2010. The general provisions are found in Chapter 4 – Sections 1471 – 1474 of the Internal Revenue Code. The statute is coercive and is a US demand, under threat of sanction, that non-U.S. banks deliver information, about the bank accounts of residents of their country, to U.S. Treasury. The statute contemplates a one way flow of information to the United States without ANY reciprocity from the United States. (Any discussion of “reciprocity” must take place within the context of the FATCA IGAs.)

The 2014 Implementation Of FATCA Via The IGAs

The implementation of FATCA (via the FATCA IGAs) began (in many countries) on July 1, 2014. Because the statute does obligate the United States to provide any information to other countries, any obligation of reciprocity must be found in the IGAs.

Non-U.S. countries are required – pursuant to the FATCA IGAs – to transfer information about the holders of local financial accounts in their country to the United States of America. Notably the vast majority of account information transferred to the United States is information about accounts held by tax residents of the transferor country. In other words: pursuant to the FATCA IGAs, account information is transferred about accounts located in a country where the account holder actually lives to a country where the account holder does NOT actually live! To put this in context, imagine the following scenario:

You have a neighbour in a Canadian small town, who earns his income in Canada and pays tax on that income to Canada. That income is deposited into a bank account at a branch located in his community. That neighbour may be having his bank account information transferred to the United States. How could this be you ask? Surely this must be a mistake? The answer is “No it is not a mistake”. It’s the result of Canada enacting a U.S. law (“FATCA”) on Canadian soil. Pursuant to that FATCA law (described in numerous CBC articles), the transfer of account information is required because your neighbour was either born in the United States or was born in Canada to a U.S. citizen parent. So what you ask? Surely the circumstances of a person’s birth shouldn’t mean that a country where they don’t live has access to their banking information in the country where they do live? Wrong again. It’s about tax residency and about the U.S. unique definition of tax residency. You see, the United States defines any U.S. citizen as a tax resident of the United States (regardless of where that citizen lives). By defining “tax residency” in terms of citizenship, the United States is claiming that the tax residents of other countries are U.S. tax residents. U.S. citizens are subject to all (tax, forms and penalty) the provisions of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code. But wait you ask! My neighbour lives in Canada, pays tax in Canada and is a tax resident of Canada! (In fact the FATCA IGAs allow the United States – by tying the definition of U.S. citizen to U.S. law – to define ANY individual in Canada as a U.S. tax resident.) Yes, it’s true. Pursuant to the FATCA IGAs the United States is claiming Canadian tax residents as U.S. tax residents. This means that the United States is claiming the right to impose U.S. taxation on the Canadian employment income, earned by residents of Canada, which is already taxed in Canada. Yes it’s true.

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H.R. 5799 – Is it a #FATCA Same Country Exemption For Americans Abroad? – Let’s See

Introduction:

July 12, 2022 – Is there hope for Americans Abroad?

July 14, 2022 – An update

H.R. 5799 has been exciting news indeed! The purpose of this post is to see how H.R. 5799 actually changes the existing legislation. Does it actually deliver “Overseas Financial Access” for Americans Abroad? On June 21, 2022 this issue was considered in an IRS Medic video. The purpose of this post is to understand how H.R. 5799 would change IRC sections 1471(d) and 6038D. In order to understand this, I will take the amendments proposed in H.R. 5799, modify the text of those IRC sections and then analyze their impact. The new sections mandated by H.R. 5799 will appear in italics.

The Bottom Line (For Those Who Don’t Want To Read The Post)

With respect to Foreign Financial Institutions – When must FFIs harass suspected Americans?

JR Commentary: It appears that a Foreign Financial Institution has been given the authorization to opt to NOT report the “depository accounts” of certain Americans abroad without regard to the balance in the account. The $50,000 limit has been removed. The Foreign Financial Institution would have to be satisfied that the individual meets the residency requirement for the 911 Foreign Earned Income Exclusion. Notably this could apply only to “depository accounts” and would not apply to “custodial accounts”. The benefits to Americans abroad are minor. The administrative work required from the bank would likely be considered to be burdensome. The FFIs are still required to report custodial accounts.

This does not provide any assistance to the “Accidental Americans” who cannot comply with the demands for a U.S. Social Security Number or are unwilling to submit a W9.

With Respect to individuals – Reporting Requirements, Form 8938

JR Commentary: This section would relax the FATCA reporting requirements and could significantly water down the requirement to file Form 8938. What it seems to say is:

1. If the individual meets the requirements to use the 911 Foreign Earned Income Exclusion then with respect to BOTH depository and custodial accounts held by Foreign Financial Institutions in that same country … the obligation to File Form 8938 is considered without regard to the depository and custodial accounts held in that country. The way that “account” is defined in this section is:

“Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, the term “financial account” means, with respect to any financial institution-

(A) any depository account maintained by such financial institution,

(B) any custodial account maintained by such financial institution, and

(C) any equity or debt interest in such financial institution (other than interests which are regularly traded on an established securities market).”

This could completely eliminate the Form 8938 requirement for many Americans who meet either the “bona fide residence” or physical presence tests in 911(d).

It is possible that this could provide some relief for those Americans abroad who are already filing Form 8938.

Now on to the post …

About FATCA

FATCA was a collection of amendments to the Internal Revenue Code. Generally, FATCA imposes requirements on both (1) Foreign Financial Institutions and (2) Individuals. H.R. 5799 contains provisions which affect both. The post is for the purpose of seeing exactly what the relevant statutes look like after the changes.

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July 5/22: An Opportunity To Educate Resident Americans About The Horrors Of Citizenship Tax

Updated July 5, 2022 …

Great discussion with Bob Paxton and Bob Scarborough:

An Opportunity To Educate Resident Americans About The Horrors Of US Citizenship Tax

First a special thanks to Joe Howard who arranged for this opportunity.

On Tuesday July 5, 2022 at 8 pm EST (20:00) I (John Richardson) will appear on the Fair Tax Power Radio Show. The Fair Tax Power Radio Show is hosted by Bob Paxton and Bob Scarborough. The show is for the purpose of educating US residents about the (1) the problems of the U.S. income tax system and (2) the solution by moving to the Fair Tax. You can learn more about the Fair Tax in my recent blog post found here and on the Fair Tax site. I suggest that you follow their Twitter feed at @FairTaxOfficial.

The Topic: How The US Tax System Disables Americans Abroad From Financial and Retirement Planning and How The Fair Tax System Would Solve This Problem

You understand the problem. You understand the pain. You understand the fear. You understand that you may be forced to renounce U.S. citizenship.

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